«The V International Scientific and Practical Conference WORLD WAR I: ANALYSIS A CENTURY LATER. THE YEAR 1915» is a part of a series of scientific and scientific-practical events held in the world and dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the First world war 1914-1918.
Early in 1915 it became apparent that the general staffs of all the belligerent countries grossly miscalculated the definition of the terms of the war. It was delayed for an indefinite period. For the Central Powers,unlike the Entente, this perspective did not promise any benefits.In the military high command of Germany and Austro-Hungary the positions of P.Hindenburg and E.von Ludendorff strengthened. Their demand was to transfer the direction of the main blow to the Eastern(Russian) front and primary defeat of Russia. The quick liquidation of the eastern front was to make Paris and London sign a peace agreement advantageous for the Central Power. On the eastern front there were still possibilities for conducting maneuver warfare and it was not required to break through a well-prepared trench defenses. Besides a severe blow to Russia prevented the invasion of the Russian armies into East Prussia and Austro-Hungary. Great Britain and France believed that victory over Germany was possible only under the condition of achieving absolute superiority over her. They decided to pay focus on building their own military and economic potential and to go to the strategic defense on the Western Front outlining active steps only in the eastern Mediterranian and spend a large naval operation in the Dardanelles. All these reasons put together led to the indisputable historical fact that in 1915 the main front of the World War I began eastern(Russian).
Campaign 1915 was hard for the Russian army. During “the Great retreat” hundreds of thousands of soldiers and offices were killed, wounded or captured. Russian army left Galicia, Bukovina, part of Byelorussia and Baltic countries. However the whole campaign on the Eastern Front in 1915 marked the collapse of the Central Powers plan to withdraw Russia from the front. The success won by the armies of Germany and Austro-Hungary in a number of operations changed little overall strategic position of both coalitions. Russia did not receive adequate support from her allies in the Entente, but her heroic resistance ensured the UK and France the required time for the accumulation of military forces and materiel. In these conditions, a new form had found the pursuit of both coalitions of allies. Special attention was paid to involving Italy and Bulgaria in the war. The intervention of Bulgaria on the side of the Central Powers largely predetermined Serbian Calvary in the end on 1915.
From the beginning of 1915 it was obvious that the war created a very heaven burden on the economics of the belligerent countries: millions of people were mobilized, the armies did not have enough weapons and ammunition. Pre-war reserves were quickly depleted so belligerent countries quickly rebuilt their economies under military needs. The war began to turn into a battle of economies. The development of new military equipment was intensified. In April 1915 for the first time in history in Flanders near the town of Ypres, German troops used chemical weapons- chlorine. 15 thousand people were poisoned of which 5000 died. After the Ypres gas attack both sides quickly developed masks of various designs. Thus the war became increasingly total. All actions of warring parties were carried out to the detriment of the peaceful existence of people. Simultaniously with the search for the versions of national consensus in the belligerent countries tougher confrontation with the so-called internal enemy (the fight with the German dominance in the Russian Empire, the oppression of Jews in the front line during the retreat of the Russian Army, mass repression and the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Armenians in Ottoman Empire, the persecution of the supporters of Irish independence in the British Empire,etc).
The reports and discussions of Russian and foreign participants of the conference are expected to consider these issues in the chronological framework of 1915. In accordance with the mission of one of the organizers of the conference – IIUEPS Academy- special attention will be paid to social issues.
The conference will address the following key issues:
1. The Russian Empire and the world in 1915. Diplomatic maneuvering and fighting for the allies.
2. Military actions in 1915.
3. Balkan node in 1915.
4. The society and the challenges of the war: versions of national consensus.
5. The Russian Orthodox Church and other religions in public life in 1915.
6.The cultural and spiritual life: the problems of war and peace in public and political debates in 1915.
Thematic sections will be determined in the next newsletter.
The date of the conference – 26-27 November,2015.
The place of the conference:
Plenary sessions –November 26,2015, The State Historical Museum (Red Square, 1).
Breakout sessions and a final plenary session – November 27, 2015, IIUEPS Academy.(Cosmonaut Volkov Street,20).
Applications for participants in the conference are accepted by the organizing committee before November 15,2015.
The reports of the participants will be published in the conference proceedings until November 2016.
Theses of reports ( messages up to 5000 characters with spaces,headset Times, size 12 with 1 interval hyphenation, footnotes at the end of the message – size 10) are accepted by the organizing committee of the conference until November 15, 2015.
After confirmation by the organizing committee receiving the application for the participation in the conference,the program will be sent by e-mail or to the postal address of the participant until November 23, 2015.
In case of impossibility of the personal presence of the reporter at the conference valid remote participation via Skype.
The head of the press centre of IIUEPS Academy – Julia Louneva – tel. 8(495)231-44-50 (extension 180).
e-mail: press-centre@ mnepu.ru.
Executive secretary of the Organizing Committee- Hanukaeva Anna Rostislavovna, email@example.com
Mailing address:127299 IIUEPS Academy, 20 Cosmonaut Volkov Street,Moscow.
Tel:8(8(495) 231-44-50(ext. 205) Fax(499)159-17-27.